Chapter 2: References

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  2. Mustard, J. F. (2008). Investing in the early years: Closing the gap between what we know and what we do. Adelaide, SA: Department of the Premier and Cabinet.

  3. Sokolowski, M., personal communication, May 25, 2011.

  4. CIA World Fact Book. (n.d.). Infant Mortality Rate. Country Comparison. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2091.html

  5. Ibid.

  6. Meaney, M. (2010). Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene x environment interactions. Child Development, 81(1), 41–79.

  7. Waddington, C. H. (1957). The strategy of the genes. London, UK: George Allen & Unwin.

  8. Gilbert, S. F., & Epel, D. (2009). Ecological developmental biology: Integrating epigenetics, medicine, and evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

  9. Ibid.; Sokolowski, M., personal communication, May 25, 2011.

  10. Meaney, M. (2010). Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene x environment interactions. Child Development, 81(1), 41–79.

  11. Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessell, T. (2000). Principles of neural science (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

  12. Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York, NY: Wiley.

  13. Meaney, M. (2010). Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene x environment interactions. Child Development, 81(1), 41–79.

  14. Fields, D. (2011, June 8). The hidden brain. Scientific American Mind, 22, 52–59. doi:10.1038/scientificamericanmind0511-52

  15. Ibid.

  16. Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S. L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(5), 2860–2865.

  17. Friauf, E. & Lohmann, C. (1999). Development of auditory brainstem circuitry: Activity-dependent and activity independent processes. Cell & Tissue Research, 297, 187–195.; McLaughlin, T. & O’Leary, D. D. (2005). Molecular gradients and development of retinotopic maps. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 327–355.

  18. Lomber, S., Meredith, M. A., & Kral, A. (2010). Cross-modal plasticity in specific auditory corticesunderlies visual compensations in the deaf. Nature Neuroscience, 13(11), 1421–1427.

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  20. National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2004). Young children develop in an environment of relationships: Working paper no. 1. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu

  21. Greenspan, S. I. & Shanker, S. G. (2004). The first idea: How symbols, language and intelligence evolved from our primate ancestors to modern humans. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

  22. Meaney, M., & Szyf, M. (2005). Maternal care as a model for experience-dependent chromatin plasticity. Trends in Neuroscience, 28(9), 456–463.

  23. Paul, A. M. (2010). Origins: How the nine months before birth shape the rest of our lives. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

  24. Barker, D. J. P. (1998). Mothers, babies and health in later life. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone.; Paul, A. M. (2010). Origins: How the nine months before birth shape the rest of our lives. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

  25. Nelson, S. M., Matthews, P., & Poston, L. (2010). Maternal metabolism and obesity: Modifiable determinants of pregnancy outcome. Human Reproduction Update, 16(3), 255–275.

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  27. Lupien, S., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434–446.

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  31. McEwen, B. S., & Gianaros, P. (2010). Central role of the brain in stress and adaptation: Links to socioeconomic status, health and disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 190–222.

  32. Diamond, A. & Lee, K. (2011, August 19). Interventions to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959–964; Gopnik, A. (2010, July 8). How babies think. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=how-babies-think; McEwen, B. S. & Schmeck, H. (1998). The hostage brain. New York, NY: Rockerfeller University Press.

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  34. Zelazo, P. D. & Paus, T. (2010). Developmental social neuroscience: An introduction. Social Neuroscience, 5, 417–421.

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  36. Werker, J. F. & Byers-Heinlein, K. (2008). Bilingualism in infancy: first steps in perception and comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), 144–151.

  37. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.; Huttenlocher, J. (1991). Early vocabulary growth: Relation to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 236–248.

  38. Dickinson, D., & Tabors, P. (Eds.). (2001). Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and school. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.; Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1999). The social world of children learning to talk. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

  39. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

  40. Dionne, G. (2010). Early language skills and reading acquisition. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/az.asp?lang=EN

  41. Wylie, C., Hodgen, E., Hipkins, R., & Vaughan, K. (2009). Competent learners on the edge of adulthood: A summary of key findings from the Competent Learners @ 16 project. Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

  42. Hackman, D. & Farah, M. J. (2009). Socioeconomic status and brain development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 65–73.

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  44. Wilkinson, R. & Pickett, K. (2009). The spirit level: Why more equal societies almost always do better. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press.

  45. UNICEF. (2011). State of the world’s children 2010. New York, NY: United Nations Children’s Fund.

  46. Gluckman, P., Beedle, A., & Hanson, M. (2009). Principles of evolutionary medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.; McEwen, B. S., & Gianaros, P. (2010). Central role of the brain in stress and adaptation: Links to socioeconomic status, health and disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 190–222.

  47. 47. OREALC/UNESCO Santiago. (2008). Student achievement in Latin America and the Caribbean: Results of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE). Santiago, CL: OREALC/UNESCO Santiago.

  48. Ibid.

  49. Burton, M. (2008). The idea of the polyclinic. Retrieved from http://www.cubasol-manch.org.uk/The%20idea%20of%20the%20polyclinic.pdf

  50. Willms, J. D. & Somers, M. -A. (2001). Family, classroom, and school effects on children’s educational outcomes in Latin America. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12(4), 409–445.

  51. Desjardins, R., Murray, S., Clermont, Y., & Werquin, P. (2005). Learning a living: First results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-603-XWE. Ottawa, ON & Paris, FR: Statistics Canada and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

  52. Barr-Telford, L., Nault, F., & Pignal, J. (2005). Building on our competencies: Canadian results of the International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-617-XIE. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

  53. Felitti, V., Anda, R., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D., Spitz, A., Edwards, V., . . . Marks, J. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.

  54. Rutter, M., Beckett, C., Castle, J., Colvert, E., Kreppner, J., Mehta, M., . . . Sonuga-Barke, E. (2007). Effects of profound early institutional deprivation: An overview from a UK longitudinal study of Romanian adoptees. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4(3), 332–350.

  55. Drury, S. S., Theall, K., Gleason, M. M., Smyke, A. T., De Vivo, I., Wong, J. Y. Y., . . . Nelson, C. A. (2011, May 17). Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: Linking early adversity and cellular aging. Molecular Psychiatry, advance online publication. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.53

  56. Grantham-McGregor, S., Powell, C., Walker, S., & Himes, J. (1991). Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation, and mental development of stunted children: the Jamaican study. The Lancet, 338(8758),1–5.

  57. Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Walker, S. P., Chang, S. M., & Powell, C. A. (1997). Effects of early childhood supplementation with and without stimulation on later development in stunted Jamaican children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(2), 247–253.

  58. Walker, S., Chang, S., Powell, C., & Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (2005). Effects of early childhood psychosocial stimulation and nutritional supplementation on cognition and education in growth-retarded Jamaican children: A prospective cohort study. The Lancet, 366, 1804–1807. doi:10.1016/S)140-66736(05)67574-5.; Walker, S., Chang, S., Vera-Hernández, M., & Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (2011). Early childhood stimulation with growth-retarded children benefits adult competence and reduces violent behavior. Pediatrics. 127(5), 849–857.

  59. Walker, S., Chang, S., Vera-Hernández, M., & Grantham-McGregor, S. M. (2011). Early childhood stimulation with growth-retarded children benefits adult competence and reduces violent behavior. Pediatrics. 127(5), 849–857.

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